Effect of vitamin D supplement on depression scores in people with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
AIMS: To compare depressive symptoms in participants with low and high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and to examine whether supplementation with vitamin D(3) would improve symptoms in those with low serum 25(OH)D levels.
METHOD: Participants with low 25(OH)D levels were randomised to either placebo or 40 000 IU vitamin D(3) per week for 6 months. Individuals with high serum 25(OH)D levels were used as nested controls. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Seasonal Pattern Assessment Scale and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00960232).
RESULTS: Participants with low 25(OH)D levels (n = 230) at baseline were more depressed (P<0.05) than participants with high 25(OH)D levels (n = 114). In the intervention study no significant effect of high-dose vitamin D was found on depressive symptom scores when compared with placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of serum 25(OH)D are associated with depressive symptoms, but no effect was found with vitamin D supplementation.
Nest case-control study and randomised clinical trial
Kjaergaard M, Waterloo K, Wang CE, Almås B, Figenschau Y, Hutchinson MS, Svartberg J, Jorde R:
Br J Psychiatry 201(5):360-368, 2012